Underlying Principle 1: subsidiarity and proportionality 🔝
The subsidiarity principle requires EU decisions to be taken as closely as possible to the citizen. The EU does not take action unless this is more effective than the same action taken at national level. The proportionality principle limits EU actions to what is necessary to achieve the objectives of the Treaties.
Recommendation 1: Ensure that national interoperability frameworks and interoperability strategies are aligned with the EIF and, if needed, tailor and extend them to address the national context and needs. 🔗Supporting Solutions
Underlying Principle 2: openness 🔝
The concept of openness mainly relates to data, specifications and software. Open government data (here simply referred ‘open data’) refers to the idea that all public data should be freely available for use and reuse by others, unless restrictions apply e.g. for protection of personal data, confidentiality, or intellectual property rights. Public administrations collect and generate huge amounts of data. The Directive on the reuse of public sector information (PSI)7 encourages Member States to make public information available for access and reuse as open data. The INSPIRE Directive8 requires, in addition, sharing of spatial datasets and services between public authorities with no restrictions or practical obstacles to its reuse. This data should be published with as few restrictions as possible and clear licences for its use to allow better scrutiny of administrations’ decision-making processes and realise transparency in practice.
Recommendation 2: Publish the data you own as open data unless certain restrictions apply. 🔗Supporting Solutions
Recommendation 3: Ensure a level playing field for open source software and demonstrate active and fair consideration of using open source software, taking into account the total cost of ownership of the solution. 🔗Supporting Solutions
Recommendation 4: Give preference to open specifications, taking due account of the coverage of functional needs, maturity and market support and innovation. 🔗Supporting Solutions
Underlying Principle 3: transparency 🔝
(1). Enabling visibility inside the administrative environment of a public administration. This is about allowing other public administrations, citizens and businesses to view and understand administrative rules, processes, data, services and decision-making (2). Ensuring availability of interfaces with internal information systems. Public administrations operate a large number of what are often heterogeneous and disparate information systems in support of their internal processes. Interoperability depends on ensuring the availability of interfaces to these systems and the data they handle. In turn, interoperability facilitates reuse of systems and data, and enables these to be integrated into larger systems. (3). Securing the right to the protection of personal data, by respecting the applicable legal framework for the large volumes of personal data of citizens, held and managed by Public administrations.
Recommendation 5: Ensure internal visibility and provide external interfaces for European public services. 🔗Supporting Solutions
Underlying Principle 4: reusability 🔝
Interfaces, standards, information and data are enablers of interoperability and improve quality because they extend operational use as well as saving money and time. This makes it a major contributor to the development of a digital single market in the EU. Some EU standards and specifications also exist in the DIFs and should be applied more widely. For example, the INSPIRE Directive sets out interoperability standards for addresses, cadastres, roads and many other data topics of relevance to many public administrations. These existing standards and specifications can and should be used more widely beyond the domain for which they were originally developed.
Recommendation 6: Reuse and share solutions, and cooperate in the development of joint solutions when implementing European public services. 🔗Supporting Solutions
Recommendation 7: Reuse and share information and data when implementing European public services, unless certain privacy or confidentiality restrictions apply. 🔗Supporting Solutions
Underlying Principle 5: technological neutrality and data portability 🔝
When establishing European public services, public administrations should focus on functional needs and defer decisions on technology as long as possible in order to minimise technological dependencies to avoid imposing specific technical implementations or products on their constituents. Public administrations should provide for access and reuse of their public services and data irrespective of specific technologies or products. The functioning of the digital single market requires data to be easily transferable among different systems to avoid lock-in, supporting free movement of data. This requirement relates to data portability - the ability to move and reuse data easily among different applications and systems, which becomes even more challenging in cross-border scenarios.
Recommendation 8: Do not impose any technological solutions on citizens, businesses and other administrations that are technology-specific or disproportionate to their real needs. 🔗Supporting Solutions
Recommendation 9: Ensure data portability, namely that data is easily transferable between systems and applications supporting the implementation and evolution of European public services without unjustified restrictions, if legally possible. 🔗Supporting Solutions
Underlying Principle 6: user centricity 🔝
Users’ needs should be considered when determining which public services should be provided and how they should be delivered in accordance with the following expectations: (1). A multi-channel service delivery approach, meaning the availability of alternative channels, physical and digital, to access a service, is an important part of public service design, as users may prefer different channels depending on the circumstances and their needs; (2). A single point of contact should be made available to users, to hide internal administrative complexity and facilitate access to public services, e.g. when multiple bodies have to work together to provide a public service; (3). Users’ feedback should be systematically collected, assessed and used to design new public services and to further improve existing ones; (4). As far as possible, under the legislation in force, users should be able to provide data once only, and administrations should be able to retrieve and share this data to serve the user in accordance with data protection rule; (5). Users should be asked to provide only the information that is absolutely necessary to obtain a given public service.
Recommendation 11: Provide a single point of contact in order to hide internal administrative complexity and facilitate users’ access to European public services. 🔗Supporting Solutions
Recommendation 12: As far as possible under the legislation in force, ask users of European public services once-only and relevant-only information. 🔗Supporting Solutions
Recommendation 13: Users should be asked to provide only the information that is absolutely necessary to obtain a given public service. 🔗Supporting Solutions
Underlying Principle 7: inclusion and accessibility 🔝
Inclusion is about enabling everyone to take full advantage of the opportunities offered by new technologies to access and make use of European public services, overcoming social and economic divides and exclusion. Accessibility ensures that people with disabilities, the elderly and other disadvantaged groups, can use public services at service levels comparable to those provided to other citizens.
Recommendation 14: Ensure that all European public services are accessible to all citizens, including persons with disabilities, the elderly and other disadvantaged groups. For digital public services, public administrations should comply with e-accessibility specifications that are widely recognised at European or international level. 🔗Supporting Solutions
Underlying Principle 8: security and privacy 🔝
Citizens and businesses must be confident that when they interact with public authorities they are doing so in a secure and trustworthy environment and in full compliance with relevant regulations, e.g. the Regulation and Directive on data protection, and the Regulation on electronic identification and trust services. Public administrations must guarantee the citizens’ privacy, and the confidentiality, authenticity, integrity and non-repudiation of information provided by citizens and businesses.
Recommendation 15: Define a common security and privacy framework and establish processes for public services to ensure secure and trustworthy data exchange between public administrations and in interactions with citizens and businesses. 🔗Supporting Solutions
Underlying Principle 9: multilingualism 🔝
European public services can potentially be used by anyone in any Member State. So, multilingualism needs to be carefully considered when designing them. Citizens across Europe often have problems in accessing and using digital public services if these are not available in the languages they speak. A balance needs to be found between the expectations of citizens and businesses to be served in their own language(s) or their preferred language(s) and the ability of Member States’ public administrations to offer services in all official EU languages. A suitable balance could be that European public services are available in the languages of the expected end-users, i.e. the number of languages is decided on the basis of users’ needs, such as the level to which the service is critical for the implementation of the digital single market or national policies, or the size of the relevant audience. Multilingualism comes into play not just in the user interface, but at all levels in the design of European public services. For example, the choices made on data representation in an electronic database should not limit its ability to support different languages. The multilingual aspect of interoperability becomes also relevant when a public service requires exchanges between information systems across language boundaries, as the meaning of the information exchanged must be preserved.
Recommendation 16: Use information systems and technical architectures that cater for multilingualism when establishing a European public service. Decide on the level of multilingualism support based on the needs of the expected users. 🔗Supporting Solutions
Underlying Principle 10: administrative simplification 🔝
Where possible, public administrations should seek to streamline and simplify their administrative processes by improving them or eliminating any that does not provide public value. Administrative simplification can help businesses and citizens to reduce the administrative burden of complying with EU legislation or national obligations. Likewise, public administrations should introduce European public services supported by electronic means, including their interactions with other public administrations, citizens and businesses. Digitisation of public services should take place in accordance with the following concepts: (1). digital-by-default, whenever appropriate, so that there is at least one digital channel available for accessing and using a given European public service; (2). Digital-first, which means that priority is given to using public services via digital channels while applying the multi-channel delivery concept and the no-wrong-door policy, i.e. physical and digital channels co-exist.
Recommendation 17: Simplify processes and use digital channels whenever appropriate for the delivery of European public services, to respond promptly and with high quality to users’ requests and reduce the administrative burden on public administrations, businesses and citizens. 🔗Supporting Solutions
Underlying Principle 11: preservation of information 🔝
Legislation requires that decisions and data are stored and can be accessed for a specified time. This means that records and information in electronic form held by public administrations for the purpose of documenting procedures and decisions must be preserved and be converted, where necessary, to new media when old media become obsolete. The goal is to ensure that records and other forms of information keep their legibility, reliability and integrity and can be accessed as long as needed subject to security and privacy provisions. To guarantee the long-term preservation of electronic records and other kinds of information, formats should be chosen to ensure long-term accessibility, including preservation of associated electronic signatures or seals. In this regard, the use of qualified preservation services, in line with Regulation (EU) 910/2014, can ensure the long-term preservation of information. For information sources owned and managed by national administrations, preservation is a purely national matter. For information that is not strictly national, preservation becomes a European issue. In that case, an appropriate ‘preservation policy’ should be applied by the Member States concerned to cope with any difficulties arising if the relevant information is used under different jurisdictions.
Recommendation 18: Formulate a long-term preservation policy for information related to European public services and especially for information that is exchanged across borders. 🔗Supporting Solutions
Underlying Principle 12: assessment of effectiveness and efficiency 🔝
There are many ways to take stock of the value of interoperable European public services, including considerations such as return on investment, total cost of ownership, level of flexibility and adaptability, reduced administrative burden, efficiency, reduced risk, transparency, simplification, improved working methods, and level of user satisfaction. Various technological solutions should be evaluated when striving to ensure the effectiveness and efficiency of a European public service.
Recommendation 19: Evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of different interoperability solutions and technological options considering user needs, proportionality and balance between costs and benefits. 🔗Supporting Solutions