(A.) Policy and legislation
(A.1) Policy objectives
The energy system is undergoing considerable changes, mainly driven by decarbonisation, decentralisation and digitalisation, calling for smarter, flexible, responsive networks and markets that empower consumers and place them at the heart of it all.
Important policy milestones for this green and digital transformation are the EU’s energy and climate targets for 2030 which also underpin Europe’s leading role in the fight against climate change: at least 40% domestic reduction in greenhouse gas emissions compared to 1990, at least 32%29 (for the share of renewable energy consumed in the EU, at least 32,5% improvement of energy efficiency and an electricity interconnection target of 15% by 2030. In this context, the electricity networks have a central role to play. In 2018, electricity represented 21% of the EU’s final energy consumption with renewables making up a share of 34% of gross production (reference: Eurostat; https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/cache/infographs/energy/bloc-3b.html), while expected to grow up to 55% in 203030, in line with the 2030 energy and climate goals and with the Paris Agreement.
Also, the consumer position in the energy value chain is very different now compared to what it used to be. The consumer is not the passive end ring in this chain anymore, paying numbly the bills of incumbent’s utilities. Instead, he/she has the opportunity to choose between many energy suppliers and service providers to obtain the best deal and benefits. When dynamic pricing becomes available, then consumers will also be able to opt for it and accordingly modulate their energy behaviour, consuming when the prices are low. Furthermore, consumers can be really active players by directly or through a third party providing services, e.g. flexibility to network operators when they ask either to increase or decrease consumption, if it is needed for system balancing or grid congestion management (demand response). And they can also be a (micro) generator themselves- the so-called prosumers.
In this digital transformation of the energy sector, the sector and cross-sector sharing of data, in a customer-centric, secure and trustworthy manner, as well as the deployment of technologies facilitating that, are key. This makes more relevant than ever the need to setting out the interoperability requirements and non-discriminatory and transparent procedures for access to data at the energy sector level, and beyond. Big Data and the Internet of Things, 5G and artificial intelligence, smart grids and smart meters, smart homes, smart storage and smart charging data sharing platforms, distributed ledger technologies (DLT) will be key drivers for a successful digitalisation of energy. To succeed, we will need to build on achievements in the three pillars of the Digital Single Market – better access to digital goods and services, an environment where digital networks and services can prosper, and digital as a driver for growth. Energy and digital will come together most closely if we enable European companies to deliver energy intelligent products and services across Europe without undue restrictions and if the energy sector actively contributes to horizontal Digital Single Market policies. The single energy market and the digital single market must go hand-in-hand, as in reality they feed each other.
Smart grids are a clear example of digital meeting energy, as they are about information exchange and making necessary data available to interested parties. Smart grids will enable improved energy efficiency and the integration of vast amounts of Renewable Energy Sources (RES) from an increasingly decentralised generation and new loads such as electric vehicles and energy storage; provide an opportunity to boost the retail market competitiveness and worldwide technological leadership of EU technology providers, and a platform for traditional energy companies or new market entrants such as ICT companies, including SMEs, to develop new, innovative energy services. That dynamic should enhance competition in the retail market, incentivise reductions in greenhouse gas emissions and provide an opportunity for economic growth.
(A.2) EC perspective and progress report
Standards are needed to cover the communication needs of the grid management, balancing and interfacing with the millions of new renewable energy sources, as well as for the complex interactions of the new distributed energy market which is also enriched with demand-side response services.
Communication standards will also be crucial for the deployment of electric vehicles and the building-up of smart cities. Harmonised communication protocols would provide standard components and interfaces giving ‘plug-and-play’ capability for any new entrant to the network, such as renewables or electric cars, or the use of open architectures based on global communication standards. To further promote interoperability, in addition to standardisation, testing and profiling should also be considered.
A major challenge is engaging the right stakeholders which need to be brought together to conduct the standardisation work taking into account that between smart grid management (of relevance to energy producers, the utility network operators) and smart consumption (involving the end consumer) a seamless environment should be established where interests are not identical and potentially conflicting.
The EC has been working towards interoperability of the solutions and standardisation for several years now. The main coordination reference for smart grids at European level is the Smart Grids Task Force, which was given the mission to advise the European Commission on policy and regulatory directions at European level and to coordinate the first steps towards the implementation of Smart Grids under the provision of the Third Energy Package. Nine DGs are participating: ENER and CNECT (co-chair), CLIMA, GROW, COMP, JUSTICE, JRC, RTD and SANTE, along with more than thirty associations representing all relevant stakeholders, from both sectors – energy and telecommunications, and more than 350 experts from national regulatory agencies and industrial market actors, as well as consumer associations and other relevant stakeholders.
The mandate M/490 on smart grids given to CEN-CENELEC-ETSI by the Commission in March 2011 can be considered as completed. In October 2014 the CEN/CENELEC/ETSI’s Smart Grid Coordination Group (SG-CG) produced the following reports and thus successfully completed the requirements of the M/490 mandate: Extended Set of Standards support Smart Grids deployment; Overview Methodology; General Market Model Development; Smart Grid Architecture Model User Manual and Flexibility Management; Smart Grid Interoperability and its tool; Smart Grid Information Security. The completion of this work was equally confirmed by the conclusions of the validation conference the Commission services organised on 26 February 2015 in Brussels, during which industry representatives confirmed their will to take over and implement the results of the Expert Group 1 work on standards. Consequently, EG1 of the Smart Grids Task Force assessed during 2015-2016 the interoperability, standards and functionalities applied in the large scale roll out of smart metering in Member States and in particular the
status of implementation of the required standardised interfaces and of the EC recommended31 functionalities related to the provision of information to consumers. A report summarising the main findings was published in October 2015 and August 201632.
More recently, during 2017-2018, the Task Force engaged in activities to help prepare the ground for the development of secondary legislation complementary to the (then under negotiation and recently completed) Clean Energy Package, and specific to the issue of data interoperability, and also for network codes on demand-response, and cybersecurity.
Regarding data interoperability, the experts worked on procedures for electricity (and gas) data access and exchange, with the task of collecting information and investigating the way towards interoperable practices in the EU. The respective findings and recommendations are summarised in a report published in March 2019. Similarly, the Task Force findings on the necessary further steps for facilitating demand side flexibility in the EU and what to potentially consider in a network code was published in April 201933.
On cybersecurity, the Smart Grids Task Force experts have been developing a comprehensive sector-specific strategy on how to reinforce the implementation of the NIS directive at energy sector level (see their respective report published in September 2019. This activity falls under the overall effort to increase cybersecurity awareness and preparedness in the energy sector, as also illustrated by the latest Commission recommendation34 in this field and also fosters synergies between the Energy Union and the Digital Single Market agendas.
The coordination of standardisation efforts related to Smart Meters is in the hands of the Smart Meters Coordination Group (SM-CG), which was created when the European Commission issued the M/441 mandate. This multi-stakeholder group overlooks the standardisation related to the Smart Metering Infrastructure. It has already successfully completed its original mandate and has produced a reference architecture (TR 50572), a glossary of terms, an overview of available standards, Smart Metering Use Cases and an overview of technical requirements including those for privacy and security. The SM-CG was always in close contact with the SG-CG (Smart Grids Coordination Group), and continues to liaise with its
successor CG-SEG; since end 2016, the CEN-CENELEC-ETSI Smart Energy Grid Coordination Group (CG-SEG) is the focal point and continues to also cooperate with the EC Smart Grids Task Force (EC SGTF). The SM-CG developed a protection profile for minimum security requirements for the specific case of smart meters.(https://esmig.eu/news/esmig-announces-first-approved-european)
Moreover, benefiting from valuable contributions from our stakeholders, the EC fostered the creation of a common interoperability language called SAREF (Smart Appliances REFerence ontology), which became a standard of ETSI and OneM2M (the Global initiative for Internet of Things standardisation) in 2015. This was a first step and we are now moving forward in order to fully enable, on a technical interoperability level, the smart grid and its demand-response mechanism. This work was supported via an EC funded study, which delivered a live demo in the autumn of 2017 and final results and recommendations in July 2018. The results of the study are currently incorporated in the standards along the full demand-side flexibility chain. In parallel work is ongoing to extend SAREF to other verticals (e.g. automotive, water, health, etc.) allowing thus the creation of a smart city interoperable ecosystem. Cooperation with CEN and CENELEC is foreseen to further align SAREF with the data models developed at ISO and IEC.
Within the general framework of the Internet of Things and 5G, the EC is looking at all other communication aspects and needs of smart energy and including the necessary conditions in the development of said communication domains as well as aligning with the other domains such as automotive, health, smart cities, etc.
See also the work of the International Agency on Energy, particularly its recommendations in terms of interoperability35.
- COM(2020) 66 final A European strategy for data
- COM(2019) 640 final The European Green Deal
- Regulation (EU) 2019/941 on risk –preparedness in the electricity sector
- Regulation (EU) 2019/943 on the internal market for electricity
- Directive (EU) 2019/944 on common rules for the internal market for electricity
- Commission Recommendation C(2019)240 final on cybersecurity in the energy sector, and supporting Staff Working Document SWD(2019)1240 final
- COM(2017) 228 final: Mid-Term Review on the implementation of the Digital Single Market Strategy - A Connected Digital Single Market for All
- Directive 2014/94/EU on the deployment of alternative fuels infrastructure
- Recommendation 2014/724/EU on the data protection impact assessment template for smart grid and smart metering systems
- COM(2014) 356 Benchmarking smart metering deployment in the EU-27 with a focus on electricity; and accompanying SWD(2014) 188 and SWD(2014) 189
- C (2013) 7243 Delivering the internal electricity market and making the most of public intervention; and accompanying SWD (2013) 442 Incorporating demand side flexibility, in particular demand response, in electricity markets
- Recommendation COM 2012/148/EU on preparations for the roll-out of smart metering systems
- COM(2012) 663 Making the internal energy market work
- COM(2011) 202 Smart Grids: from innovation to deployment
- COM(2010) 245 “A Digital Agenda for Europe”: actions 71 & 73 address respectively minimum functionalities to promote smart grid interoperability and a common set of functionalities for smart meters and are directly related to the standardisation activities at CEN/CENELEC/ETSI.
- Directives 2009/72/EC and 2009/73/EC: Internal market in electricity and natural gas;
- Directive 2009/29/EC amending Directive 2003/87/EC so as to improve and extend the greenhouse gas emission allowance trading scheme of the Community;
- Directive 2009/28/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council on the Use of Energy from renewable sources.
- Consolidated version of Directive 2003/87/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council establishing a scheme for greenhouse gas emission allowance trading within the Community and amending Council Directive 96/61/EC(1)
- Mandates M/490(2), M/441(3) and M/468(7) from EU/EFTA to the ESOs
- COM(2015) 192: A Digital Single Market Strategy for Europe
- COM(2015) 339: Delivering a new deal for energy consumers
- Regulation (EU) 2016/679 on the protection of natural persons with regard to the processing of personal data and on the free movement of such data, and repealing Directive 95/46/EC (General Data Protection Regulation)
- Regulation (EU) 2013/347 on guidelines for trans-European energy infrastructure
- Directive 2012/27/EU on energy efficiency, amending Directives 2009/125/EC and 2010/30/EU and repealing Directives 2004/8/EC and 2006/32/EC
- COM(2016)176: ICT Standardisation Priorities for the Digital Single Market
(B.) Requested actions
Action 1 Based on the successful development of smart grids standards at the end of 2014, in May 2017 the Commission has launched three stakeholder working groups (i.a. CEN/CENELEC experts) under the Smart Grids Task Force to prepare the ground for network codes on demand response, energy-specific cybersecurity as well as implementing acts on interoperability requirements and transparent and non-discriminatory procedures for access and exchange of data. The Commission has reported on the structure, scope and progress of the groups in December 2017, and made publicly available their findings and recommendations in 2019. Specifically for data interoperability, and building upon this work, the Task Force has recently launched (June 2020) a follow-up activity aiming at further investigating the issue at hand and looking at specific business use cases when it comes to access and exchange of data. . These Task Force findings on data interoperability, demand side flexibility and cybersecurity will be feeding into the reflection on the next steps towards the drafting of secondary legislation covering the aforementioned topics.
Action 2 The EC is developing a comprehensive energy-sector strategy on how to reinforce the implementation of the NIS directive at energy sector level and also foster synergies between the Energy Union and the Digital Single Market agendas. In addition, a Work Stream on energy has been created under the Cooperation Group of the NIS Directive.
Action 3 Benefiting from valuable contributions from our stakeholders, the EC fostered the creation of a common interoperability language called SAREF (Smart Appliances REFerence ontology), which became a standard of ETSI and OneM2M (the Global initiative for Internet of Things standardisation) in 2015. This was a first step and we are now moving forward in order to fully enable, on a technical interoperability level, the smart grid and its demand-response mechanism. This work was supported via an EC funded study, which delivered a live demo in the autumn of 2017 and final results and recommendations in July 2018. The results of the study are currently incorporated in the standards along the full demand-side flexibility chain. In parallel work is ongoing to extend SAREF to other verticals (e.g. automotive, water, health, etc.) allowing thus the creation of a smart city interoperable ecosystem.
Action 4 CEN, CENELEC, IEEE and OASIS to foster their cooperation to ensure complementary parallel standardisation efforts, to avoid serious conflicts between their respective standardisation deliverables. This action should notably be undertaken in the context of H2-type standards (the interface used for smart grid communication), distributed energy resources and the smart grids architecture model as developed under M/490.
Action 5 ETSI to check what updates need to be done to NGSI-LD (as a container for SAREF4ENER) in order to enable some of the SmartMeter and SmartGrid scenarios involving demand/response. This work will be undergone in the context of the H2020 IoT Large Scale Pilot on Smart Grids and Smart Homes. The respective modifications will be further included in the new version of the standard. Moreover the full interoperability framework including the OneM2M platform in addition to SAREF and NGSI-LD will be piloted in the project and recommended as a holistic standard for the energy systems in line with what is being adopted in the other areas such as Smart Cities (MIMs Plus), Mobility, etc.
List of included standards groups:
- Smart grid security certification in Europe - Challenges and recommendations, December 2014
- CEN-CENELEC-ETSI Coordination Group on Smart Energy Grids (CG-SEG)
- Final reports of the CG-SEG under M/490 and its iteration;
- “Set of Standards” and “Privacy and Security” CG-SEG reports https://www.cencenelec.eu/standards/Sectors/SustainableEnergy/SmartGrids/Pages/default.aspx
- The Interoperability Tool (IOP-Tool) of the CG-SEG, which is an extremely useful tool for finding the standards used;
- Building energy management system
- Building automation and control systems (ISO)
- Interoperability, Standards and Functionalities applied in the large scale roll out of smart metering - European Smart Grids Task Force Expert Group 1 – Standards and Interoperability, October 2015
- Interoperability of interfaces for the large scale roll out of smart metering systems in EU Member States - European Smart Grids Task Force Expert Group 1 – Standards and Interoperability, August 2016
- CEN-CENELEC-ETSI Coordination Group on Smart Meters (CG-SM)
- Final reports of the CG-SM under M/411
- CG-SM “Privacy and Security approach” reports https://www.cencenelec.eu/standards/Sectors/SustainableEnergy/SmartMeters/Pages/default.aspx
- CG-SM 2017 Work Programme ftp://ftp.cencenelec.eu/EN/EuropeanStandardisation/Fields/EnergySustainability/Management/SmartMeters/Workprogramme2017.pdf
- European Commission Office for Infrastructure and Logistics – Manual Of Standard Building Specifications
(C.) Activities and additional information
(C.1) Related standardisation activities
On the level of technical standardisation and coordination of work, CEN and CENELEC (notably through the CEN-CENELEC-ETSI Coordination Group on Smart Energy Grids), IEEE and OASIS will foster their collaboration including identifying whether there are serious conflicts between their respective standardisation deliverables which may have a negative impact on interoperability and the market adoption of smart grid solutions. This especially concerns the relation between H2-type standards (notably EN 50491-12-1), the EN IEC 61850 series (Distributed Energy Resources), EN IEC 62746, EN IEC 61689-5, EN IEC 62325 with IEEE Std 2030.5-2013 and OASIS OpenADR.
CEN, CENELEC, ETSI
At present mandate M/490 given to CEN-CENELEC-ETSI by the Commission in March 2011 can be considered as completed. The main outcomes are available at: http://www.cencenelec.eu/standards/Sectors/SustainableEnergy/SmartGrids/Pages/default.aspx
The three ESOs have agreed to continue their collaboration in relation to smart grids following the completion of the work under the standardisation request, under the CEN-CLC-ETSI Coordination Group on Smart Energy Grids (CG-SEG). This group will focus on security and interoperability, follow up new developments in the field of smart grids and actively promote the results of its work at European and international levels.
In this context, two reports have been prepared by the CG-SEG to maintain transverse consistency and promote continuous innovation in the field of Smart Grids:
Set of Standards report
ftp://ftp.cencenelec.eu/EN/EuropeanStandardisation/Fields/EnergySustainability/SmartGrid/SmartGridSetOfStandards.pdf: The Smart Grid Set of Standards report is the new release of the original “First set of standards” and proposes an updated framework of standards which can support Smart Grids deployment in Europe. It provides a selection guide setting out, for the most common Smart Grid systems the relevant set of existing and upcoming standards to be considered, from CEN, CENELEC, ETSI and further from IEC, ISO, ITU or even coming from other bodies when needed. It also explains how these are able to be used, where, and for which purpose. Standardisation gaps have been identified and the related standardisation work program has been defined. The results of these activities will be included in future releases of this report.
Cyber Security and Privacy report
ftp://ftp.cencenelec.eu/EN/EuropeanStandardisation/Fields/EnergySustainability/SmartGrid/CyberSecurity-Privacy-Report.pdf: In this report, security standardisation specific to Smart Energy Grid and security standardisation targeting generic standards are further monitored and analysed with the focus on two specific use cases: decentralized energy resource (DER) and substation automation. It shows the applicability and interrelationship between these two groups of standards. Furthermore, the Smart Grid Information Security approach has been followed to show the applicability of different standards on the selected, specific use cases for Smart Energy Grid deployments.
Regarding electromobility, a work programme and a list of relevant standards for the charging of electric vehicles was last updated in November 2014. Regarding charging points for electric vehicles of interest to the eMobility coordination group, and in support of the implementation of the alternative fuels infrastructure Directive 2014/94/EU, a new standardisation request was issued to the ESOs in March 2015. ETSI and the oneM2M Partnership project are active in the area of machine-to-machine (M2M) with some relation to smart grids. ETSI is also developing radio technologies for wireless interconnection in home automation networks with applications such as smart metering and energy control in the scope of the technology.
CLC/TC 57 ‘Power systems management and associated information exchange’ develops European standards, in collaboration with the IEC, for power systems control equipment and systems including EMS (Energy Management Systems), SCADA (Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition). CLC/TC 57 is providing amendments to the ENs on ‘Communication networks and systems for power utility automation’ (EN 61850 series). CLC/TC 57 will also publish European Standards related to the Application integration at electric utilities (prEN 61968 series), energy management system application program interface (EMS-API) (prEN 61970 series) and on Power systems management and associated information exchange (EN 62351 series).
CLC/TC 205 ‘Home and Building Electronic Systems (HBES)’ is responsible for the development of the EN 50090 series (Home & Building Electronic Systems protocol suite) and the EN 50491 series ‘General requirements for Home and Building Electronic Systems (HBES) and Building Automation and Control Systems (BACS)’, and notably:
- EN 50491-11:2015 ‘General requirements for Home and Building Electronic Systems (HBES) and Building Automation and Control Systems (BACS) - Part 11: Smart Metering - Application Specifications - Simple External Consumer Display’;
- EN 50491-12-1:2018 ‘General requirements for Home and Building Electronic Systems (HBES) and Building Automation and Control Systems (BACS) - Smart grid - Application specification - Interface and framework for customer - Part 12-1: Interface between the CEM and Home/Building Resource manager - General Requirements and Architecture’
CLC/TC 205 is progressing work items on:
- prEN 50090-6-2 ‘Home and Building Electronic Systems (HBES)- Part 6-2 IoT Semantic Ontology_Model_Description’
- prEN 50491-12-2 ‘General requirements for Home and Building Electronic Systems (HBES) and Building Automation and Control Systems (BACS) - Part 12-2: Smart grid – Application specification - Interface and framework for customer - Interface between the Home / Building CEM’
CLC/TC 205 further activities:
- Under the banner of CLC/TC 205, WG19 has been created, open, to relevant experts from other TCs e.g:
- CLC/TC 82 ‘Solar photovoltaic energy systems’;
- CLC/TC 69X ‘Electrical systems for electric road vehicles’;
- CLC/SR 120 ‘Electrical Energy Storage (EES) Systems’;
- CLC/TC 57 ‘Power systems management and associated information exchange’;
Focusing on the S2 link (within a building, between customer energy management and energy resources including PV, storage, E-vehicle, white goods,…) these experts will work on producing a common ontology, defining what could be the data at the interface with these energy resources, based on already known use cases, but in a “technology agnostic manner”; this work will further feed the current activities of CLC/TC 205/WG 18 on Smart Grid/Smart Home Data Modelling;
In 2018, CLC/TC 8X ‘System aspects of electrical energy supply’ will continue the development of the EN 50549 series (on Requirements for generating plants to be connected in parallel with distribution networks). The standards developed under that series are important as they could be used as a technical reference for connection agreements between Distributed Networks Operators and electricity producers. In addition, these standards are supporting the Commission Regulation 2016/631/EU (Requirements for Generators).
CLC/TC 82 ‘Solar photovoltaic energy systems’, CLC/ 88 ‘Wind turbines’ and CLC/SR 117 ‘Solar thermal electric plants’ will continue to develop European Standards on Electric Generation, in close collaboration with the IEC.
CLC/TC 38 ‘Instrument transformers’ will continue to maintain the EN 61689 series on Instrument transformers.
CLC/TC 17AC ‘High-voltage switchgear and controlgear’ is responsible for the maintenance of the EN 62271 series on High-voltage switchgear and control gear.
CLC/TC 13 ‘Electrical measurement and control’ will finalize the revision of the standards on electricity metering equipment and electricity metering data exchange.
CLC/TC 59X ‘Performance of household and similar electrical appliances’ is responsible for EN 50523:2009 ’Household appliances interworking’
CLC/TC 85X ‘Measuring equipment for electrical and electromagnetic quantities’ develops, in collaboration with the IEC, European Standards for equipment and systems for measuring, testing, monitoring, generating, and analysing simple and complex electrical and electromagnetic quantities, as well as their calibrators. In 2018, CLC/TC 85X will further develop European Standards on Electrical Safety in Low Voltage distribution systems and on Electrical Test after repair of electrical equipment. These standards will apply with the aim to preserve the quality and safety as well as to avoid overheating and malfunction of power supply and the connected equipment.
CEN/TC 92 ‘Water meters’, CEN/TC 176 ‘Heat meters’ and CEN/TC 237 ‘Gas meters’ develop standards in response to the Standardisation Request (M/541) in the frame of Directive on Measuring Instruments (2014/32/EU), relevant to Smart Grid standardisation. In 2018, these technical committees will finalize the revisions of standards on the following topics:
- CEN/TC 92 – the series on water meters for cold potable water and hot water;
- CEN/TC 176 – the series on heat meters
- CEN/TC 237 – the standard on ultrasonic domestic gas meters
CEN/TC 294 ‘Communication systems for meters’ deals with the standardisation of communication interfaces for systems and remote reading of meters for all kind of fluids and energies distributed by the energy network. CEN/TC 294 will complement the EN 13757 series with standards on Wired and Wireless M-Bus communication, Application protocols and Transport and security services.
DLMS (Device Language Message Service)
DLMS/COSEM the largely deployed smart meter protocol is not listed as the state of the art protocol for this type of application. In our roadmap we plan to release for next year the missing bricks to support the Demand-Size Flexibility with adhoc profiles of course for smart meters but also for Industrial/Residential/Commercial Appliances, Residential EV Charging Stations and Energy and Water Health & Usage Monitoring Systems which should allow to deliver to these markets secure, interoperable but also compatible devices that can be controlled from an energy consumption view point to address the most important problem of managing the consumption demand.
DLMS/COSEM specifies the data model, the messaging protocol and media-specific communication profiles. Since 2002, DLMS/COSEM has been internationally standardized as part of the IEC 62056 series Electricity metering data exchange - The DLMS/COSEM suite and the EN 13757 standard suites.
IEC has a number of technical committees dealing with smart grids and smart metering:
- IEC SyC Smart Energy: Smart Energy
- IEC/TC 8: Systems Aspects for Electrical Energy Supply
- IEC/TC 8/SC 8A: Grid Integration of Large-capacity Renewable Energy (RE) Generation
- IEC/TC 8/SC 8B: Decentralized electrical energy systems
- IEC/TC 13: Electrical Energy Measurement and Control (including Smart Metering)
- IEC/TC 17: High-voltage switchgear and controlgear
- IEC/TC 23: Electrical Accessories
- IEC/TC 23/WG12: Home and Building Electronic Systems (HBES)
- IEC/TC 38: Instrument transformers
- IEC/TC 57: Power Systems Management and Associated Information Exchange
- IEC/TC 64: Electrical installations and protection against electric shock
- IEC/TC 65: Industrial-process measurement, control and automation
- IEC/TC 69: Electric road vehicles and electric industrial trucks
- IEC/TC 82: Solar photovoltaic energy systems
- IEC/TC 85: Measuring equipment for electrical and electromagnetic quantities
- IEC/TC 88: Wind energy generation systems
- IEC/TC 95: Measuring relays and protection equipment
- IEC/TC 120: Electrical Energy Storage (EES) Systems
- IEC/TC 121: Switchgear and controlgear and their assemblies for low voltage
- ISO/IEC JTC 1: Information technology
The IEC SyC Smart Energy published a new version of the Smart Grid roadmap as IEC TR 63097:2017 ‘Smart grid standardisation roadmap’.
Systems committee on smart energy (SyC Smart Energy) provides systems level standardisation and coordination in the areas of smart grids and smart energy, including interactions in the fields of heat and gas. http://www.iec.ch/dyn/www/f?p=103:186:0::::FSP_ORG_ID,FSP_LANG_ID:11825
The IEC smart grid mapping tool provides a graphical and interactive overview of all smart grid related standards: http://smartgridstandardsmap.com/
ISO/IEC JTC 1
ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 27 has started the review of ISO/IEC TR 27019:2013 ‘Information technology - Security techniques-- Information security management guidelines based on ISO/IEC 27002 for process control systems specific to the energy utility industry’. ISO/IEC TR 27019:2013 provides guiding principles based on ISO/IEC 27002 for information security management applied to process control systems as used in the energy utility industry.
The standardisation work of IEEE not only covers ICT, but also aspects of electrical power generation and distribution, including demand response, renewable energy sources, security, reliability and systems engineering. ICT standards work in Smart Grid includes:
- Smart Grid Interoperability: The IEEE 2030 series is based on an interoperability reference model that defines data flows for reliable, secure, bi-directional flow of electric power and identifies the necessary communication infrastructure, incl. for electric vehicles.
- Networking and Communications: The IEEE 1901 series of standards addresses broadband/narrowband over powerline; the 802 family of standards addresses many other aspects of networking.
- Cyber Security for Smart Grid: Multiple standards addressing cybersecurity for Intelligent Electronic Devices (IEEE 1686), Substation Automation (IEEE C37.240, IEEE 1711 series).
- Smart Metering and Demand Response: Multiple standards including IEEE 170X series and IEEE 1377 for communication protocols, 2030.5 for smart energy profiles, and IEEE 1901 series for smart metering functionality.
- Substation Automation: Standards include time protocol, synchronization work, and electric power system communication, such as IEEE 1815 (DNP3), IEC/IEEE 61850-9-3, IEEE C37.238, IEEE C37.118 series, etc.
- Electric Vehicle Charging: Standards include IEEE 2030.1.1, which specifies the design interface of electric vehicles as well as direct current and bi-directional chargers that utilize battery electric vehicles as power storage devices
For a list of these and other IEEE standardisation activities on Smart Grid, please see: https://ieeesa.io/rp-smartgrid
ITU-T Focus Group Smart Grid completed its work in December 2011 and adopted deliverables at http://itu.int/en/ITU-T/focusgroups/smart. The work was taken over by ITU-T SG15, which leads and coordinates this issue within ITU and with other organizations. ITU-T SG15 developed standards on power line communication (PLC, Recommendation ITU-T G.990x-series), which is one of the most important technologies for smart grid. ITU-T SG15 recently approved the following technical paper:
- Use of G.hn technology for smart grid
Detailed information is described in the document “smart grid standardisation overview and work plan” developed by ITU-T SG15 and available at: http://www.itu.int/en/ITU-T/studygroups/Pages/sg15-sg.aspx
ITU-T Study Group 5 on Environment, Climate Change and Circular Economy, within Question 6/5 is working on achieving energy efficiency and smart energy. As part of its work, ITU-T SG5 has approved a set of Recommendations on Smart energy solutions for telecom sites (ITU-T L.1380), data centres (L.1381) and telecommunication rooms (L.1382).
ITU-T SG13 developed Recommendation ITU-T Y.2070 “Requirements and architecture of the home energy management system and home network services”, ITU-T Y.2071 “Framework of micro energy grid” as well as ITU-T Y.2072 “Framework for an energy-sharing and trading platform”. In addition, SG13 is working on the distributed and virtualized energy storage systems: https://www.itu.int/itu-t/workprog/wp_item.aspx?isn=13977
ITU-T SG17 approved Recommendations ITU-T X.1331 “ Security guidelines for home area network (HAN) devices in smart grid system” and ITU-T X.1332“Security guidelines for smart metering services in smart grid” .
ITU-T SG20 approved Recommendation ITU-T Y.4209 “Requirements for interoperation of the smart port with the smart city” and is working on the development of a Recommendation on “Requirements and Capability Framework of Smart Utility Metering (SUM)” (Y.SUM) and Recommendation on “Data format requirements and protocols for remote data collection in smart metering systems” (Y.DFR-SM).
The OASIS Energy Interoperation TC defines interaction between Smart Grids and their end nodes, including Smart Buildings, Enterprises, Industry, Homes, and Vehicles. The TC developed data and communication models that enable the interoperable and standard exchange of signals for dynamic pricing, reliability, and emergencies.
The OASIS Energy Market Information Exchange (eMIX) supports exchanging price information and product definitions in energy markets and to those following markets. Energy Interoperation relies on the EMIX Specification for communication of price and product defintion. EMIX defines the information for use in messages that convey this actionable information.
The OASIS Web Services Calendar (WS-Calendar) defines a cross-domain standard for services to enable machine-based scheduling of human-centric activities. An essential distinction between energy and other markets is that price is strongly influenced by time of delivery. EMIX conveys time and interval by incorporating WS-Calendar into tenders, contracts, and performance calls.
RFC6272 identifies the key infrastructure protocols of the Internet Protocol Suite for use in the Smart Grid. The target audience is those people seeking guidance on how to construct an appropriate Internet Protocol Suite profile for the Smart Grid. In practice, such a profile would consist of selecting what is needed for Smart Grid deployment from the picture presented here.
The Energy Management (EMAN) WG has produced several specifications for an energy management framework, for power/energy monitoring and configuration. See http://datatracker.ietf.org/wg/eman/documents/ for the details. The framework focuses on energy management for IP-based network equipment (routers, switches, PCs, IP cameras, phones and the like).
Many of the IETF Working Groups listed under section 3.1.4 Internet of Things above are developing standards for embedded devices that may also be applicable to Smart grids.
oneM2M has published Release 2A in March 2018 and its Release 3 in September 2018. Work is ongoing on Release 4.
The oneM2M includes specifications covering requirements, architecture, protocols, security, and management, abstraction and semantics. Release 2 added new functionality, particularly by expanding management, abstraction and semantics, security and privacy, and interworking with underlying technologies. oneM2M Release 3 adds seamless interworking with 3GPP network services for IoT.
Other activities related to standardisation
OPEN CHARGE ALLIANCE
The Open Charge Alliance is an industry alliance, based in the Netherlands, of EV charging hardware and software vendors, and charging network operators and service providers. OCA’s mission is to foster global development, adoption, and compliance of the Open Charge Point Protocol (OCPP) and related standards through collaboration, education and testing. The Open Charge Alliance has promoted the benefits of the Open Charge Point Protocol (OCPP) in order to make Electric Vehicle (EV) networks open and accessible.
The US government sponsored a Smart Grid Interoperability Panel from 2009-2012 to spur cooperative industry and public agency development of open data standards for smart grid functionality: http://www.nist.gov/smartgrid/priority-actions.cfm. In 2013, the management of this project was turned over to industry stakeholders as a continuing standards cooperation project: http://sgip.org/
Japanese Industrial Standards Committee (JISC) created a roadmap for international standardisation for smart grid.
The State Grid Corporation of China (SGCC) Framework. A lot of further national activities and roadmaps could be mentioned as well, such as those of Austria, Spain, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, France, South Korea and others.
KNX Association is a non-profit-oriented organization. Members are manufacturers developing devices for several applications for home and building control based on KNX like lighting control, shutter control, heating, ventilation, air conditioning, energy management, metering, monitoring, alarm/intrusion systems, household appliances, audio/video and more. Next to manufacturers, also service providers (utilities, telecom, etc.) can become a member of the KNX Association.
KNX is approved as an International Standard (ISO/IEC 14543-3) as well as a European Standard (CENELEC EN 50090 and CEN EN 13321-1) and Chinese Standard (GB/T 20965) for Home and Building Control.
Demand Side Management white paper: https://www.knx.org/media/docs/downloads/Marketing/Flyers/KNX-Demand-Side-Management-White-Paper/KNX-Demand-Side-Management-White-Paper.pdf Smart Metering with KNX: https://www.knx.org/media/docs/downloads/Marketing/Flyers/Smart-Metering-With-KNX/Smart-Metering-With-KNX_en.pdf
(C.2) additional information
Security, privacy and management of control of the access to and ownership of data are essential for the development of smart grids. Without wide acceptance by commercial users and consumers, the role of smart grids would be limited to specific vertical markets only.
Mechanisms that allow users and providers to negotiate optimised usage, including planning and scheduling of availability and use of energy resources are addressed by CG-SEG and covered by CLC TC205 and CLC/TC 57.
- The part of the grid inside the home domain is also an element that has a significant impact on energy efficiency. Several elements are needed: local protocols for home automation networks; a multidisciplinary standardised approach covering all aspects of the problem, from application semantics to indoor interconnection wired or wireless technologies. An extensive semantic-level for building (and possibly applicable for home) already exists and is provided by CENELEC TC 205 within the EN 50491 series.
- Applications include lighting and energy control, appliances control, power monitoring, smart metering and buildings energy management; provision of elements for a global solution on smart appliances and home energy control, such as suitable radio protocols for indoor coverage.
29 With the potential for an upward revision in 2023
30 SWD/2016/0412 final - 2016/0379 (COD). Evaluation of the electricity market design and security of supply
31 Commission Recommendation 2012/148/EU
34 Commission Recommendation C(2019)240 final on cybersecurity in the energy sector, and supporting Staff Working Document SWD(2019)1240 final