According to conceptual modelling the system can be described by a model of structure and a model of behaviour. We consider two classes (structural and dynamical) models for the real and the virtual worlds. The real world is usually represented by an organizational structure model comprising the organizational units and their subordination and a business process model showing the sequence of actions and the dynamics of the organization. In addition to business processes, a document flow model can be considered, with respect to such an entity as a document, which is particularly important in public administration.
The virtual world is considered as a synergy of the data layer and the application layer. The data layer is formed by the two classes of models: data structure that reflects the basic classes of information objects and data flows as an informational reflection of sequence of actions of the real world model. As a result of the sequence of actions, the status of the information objects changes, stored in case of public sector in eGov registers. Technological layer is a technology infrastructure used for information objects storage and transactions. For these purposes human-machine or cross-system interface, communications and other technological elements are used: for instance data centres, cloud computing.
By decomposition, a more detailed analysis, of the real world model at the intersection of structure and dynamics, we get the administrative procedure as a sequence of actions realized by individual organizational units. The processes contain a part from the well-structured repeating procedures and initiatives and projects that are one-off events of limited duration.
The data layer in detail: the basis of the data layer, as in case of the real world model, is a model of structure represented by the data model. On the one hand this model reflects the status, classification of basic informational objects that are regulated by agency, and on the other hand application of this agency fixes the transactions with these objects. Current status of the informational objects is reflected in eGov registers. The data from the registers is used by different groups of users for individual actions in different administrative processes, for reporting etc. Registers are the structural frame of the data layer.
The second part of the data structure is the data on the transactions with individual objects, on the basis set of actions can be with object reproduced. For example, a register stores data on a particular real estate unit: its address, owner and other properties. Transactional data of the object contain information about previous owners, actions which led to the change of ownership, repairs, accidents, insurance cases etc. The dynamics of the base objects is a reflection of this object’s actions as data flows. The major part of the flows is associated with the registers. eGov registers are the main source of data for public services actions.
Registers, on the one hand, are the main transactional data supplier, and on the other hand, the actions lead to changes objects status: other owner of the property, issuing of a new passport, change of residential address etc. However, not all transactions can alter the status of the basic object. For example, car refuelling, viewed as an interaction of a citizen and a business, does not change the status of the object in register, while the replacement of engine is recorded in the register. Totality of the registers' data is determined by their level of maturity.
As far as register data is used by many users, there is a risk of duplication and incorrect representation the objects in different applications. In order to minimize this risk, we should develop the synchronization policy of eGov registers as rules for updating and integration. We can distinguish two classes of registers: basic and sector registers. Basic registers are those used for the major part of the administrative procedures; these are registers of individuals, legal entities, real estate, address system and some others. Sector registers contain information reflecting the specifics of a particular business sphere. The examples of sector registers are register of higher education institutions, medical institutions register, register of professions, which contain the objects and sets of characteristics used in administrative processes. The composition and content of registers depends on the maturity level of the sphere in the field of ICT. Thus, having a stable framework in the form of eGov registers we can create electronic administrative regulations for public services.
The technological layer, which is the base for storage of the data on informational objects and transactions, is a set of informational systems and their interaction. So, we can distinguish three classes of systems in the technological layer: informational systems of registers, informational systems of departments, as storage of transactions, and informational systems of electronic services.
For cross-departmental information exchange, should be created infrastructure to reflect basic objects and their statuses. A set of the objects, their connections are predetermined by the maturity level and not only contains the subject area content (for instance, person id and description), but provides a part business logic as support of business rules. Traditional data model don’t automate business rules. More sophisticated solution centralizes not only the authoritative version of the data, but embeds a part of the business rules. So it is not a single image of data. In addition to offering a “golden record” for the widespread goal, infrastructure offers automated tracking and reconciliation of data from different sources.