Openness has become an important pillar of science practice. Open access makes research output (i.e. scientific publications) publicly available. In an EU context, open access also includes open science data, i.e. making available all the data that underlies a publication.
The next step is likely to be what's now dubbed open research computation: publication of the software originally used to obtain and process scientific data, and to derive the output quoted in a paper. Validity and reproducibility of results are pivotal in the quest to converge on a universal truth (i.e. the scientific method), and represent an important driving force behind the movement toward open science.
In the latest OECD Science, Technology and Innovation (STI) Outlook (2018), the authors express their concern over the ongoing reproducibility crisis, whereby a growing number of results in scientific publications prove to be difficult or impossible for other researchers to reproduce. Making a plea for more transparency and openness in science, they made open science and enhanced access to research data one of the report's three main topics.
EU Framework Programmes
After a pilot for the FP7 programme (OpenAIRE2020 [1, 2], a Horizon 2020 project as its name suggests), open access has now become mandatory for funding under the Horizon 2020 programme (H2020 or FP8). And the Open Research Data (ORD) Pilot that is now part of H2020 is expected to be followed by a mandatory sequel in the FP9 programme.
Meanwhile, the OpenAIRE2020 project was recently turned into a full organisation, "a non-profit partnership, to ensure a permanent presence and structure for a European-wide national policy and open scholarly communication infrastructure". Open innovation, involving large communities of experts and consumers, is one of its three pillars [1, 2, 3].