Underlying Principle 2: Openness

The concept of openness mainly relates to data, specifications and software. Open government data (here simply referred ‘open data’) refers to the idea that all public data should be freely available for use and reuse by others, unless restrictions apply e.g. for protection of personal data, confidentiality, or intellectual property rights. Public administrations collect and generate huge amounts of data. The Directive on the reuse of public sector information (PSI)7 encourages Member States to make public information available for access and reuse as open data. The INSPIRE Directive8 requires, in addition, sharing of spatial datasets and services between public authorities with no restrictions or practical obstacles to its reuse. This data should be published with as few restrictions as possible and clear licences for its use to allow better scrutiny of administrations’ decision-making processes and realise transparency in practice.