INTELLIGENT TRANSPORT SYSTEMS-COOPERATIVE, CONNECTED AND AUTOMATED MOBILITY (ITS-CCAM) AND ELECTRO-MOBILITY
(A.) Policy and legislation
(A.1) Policy objectives
Intelligent transport systems apply ICT to the mobility sector. ITS services and applications can create clear benefits in terms of transport efficiency, sustainability, accessibility, safety and security, whilst contributing to the EU’s single market and competitiveness objectives and to the Green Deal.
(A.2) EC perspective and progress report
To take full advantage of the benefits that ICT-based systems and applications can bring to the mobility sector it is necessary to ensure interoperability and continuity of the services among the different systems throughout Europe. The existence of common European standards and technical specifications is paramount to ensure the interoperability of ITS services and applications and to accelerate their introduction and impact. International cooperation aiming at global harmonisation should be pursued.
- Directive (EU) 2019/1161 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 20 June 2019 amending Directive 2009/33/EC on the promotion of clean and energy-efficient road transport vehicles.
- Directive 2014/94/EU of the European Parliament and Council on the deployment of alternative fuels infrastructure (AFI).
- COM(2018)283 final: On the road to automated mobility: An EU strategy for mobility of the future
- COM (2016) 766 A European strategy on Cooperative Intelligent Transport Systems, a milestone towards cooperative, connected and automated mobility.
- Directive 2010/40/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council on the framework for the deployment of Intelligent Transport Systems in the field of road transport and for interfaces with other modes of transport
- COM(2019) 464 final Report to the European Parliament and the Council on the implementation of Directive 2010/40/EU.
- Commission Delegated Regulation (EU) No 305/2013 supplementing Directive 2010/40/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council with regard to the harmonised provision for an interoperable EU-wide eCall
- Commission Delegated Regulation (EU) No 885/2013 supplementing ITS Directive 2010/40/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council with regard to the provision of information services for safe and secure parking places for trucks and commercial vehicles
- Commission Delegated Regulation (EU) No 886/2013 supplementing Directive 2010/40/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council with regard to data and procedures for the provision, where possible, of road safety-related minimum universal traffic information free of charge to users
- Commission Delegated Regulation (EU) No 962/2015 supplementing Directive 2010/40/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council with regard to the provision of EU-wide real-time traffic information services
- Commission Delegated Regulation (EU) No 2017/1926 supplementing Directive 2010/40/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council with regard to the provision of EU-wide multimodal travel information services
- Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) 2018-732 on a common methodology for alternative fuels unit price comparison in accordance with Directive 2014/94/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council.
- Commission Delegated Regulation (EU) 2019/1745 supplementing and amending Directive 2014/94/EU as regards recharging points for L-category motor vehicles, shore-electricity supply for inland waterway vessels.
- Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) 2020/858 Amending Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) 2018/732 as regards postponing its date of application
- SWD(2019) 373 final Commission Staff Working Document on the analysis of the Member States reports.
- Commission Decision 2008/8455/EC final on the conclusion of an Implementing Arrangement between the European Commission and the Department of Transportation of the United States of America in the field of research on Intelligent Transport Systems and Information and Communication Technologies applications to road transport
- COM(2008)886 final: Commission Communication Action Plan for the deployment of intelligent transport systems in Europe
- Commission Implementing Decision (EU) 2020/1426 of 7 October 2020 on the harmonised use of radio spectrum in the 5 875-5 935 MHz frequency band for safety-related applications of intelligent transport systems (ITS) and repealing Decision 2008/671/EC (notified under document C(2020) 6773)
- Recommendation C/2006/7125: Safe and efficient in-vehicle information and communication systems: update of the European statement of principles on human machine interface (EsoP).
- COM(2016)787 final: Reporting on the monitoring and assessment of advanced vehicle safety features, their cost effectiveness and feasibility for the review of the regulations on general vehicle safety and on the protection of pedestrians and other vulnerable road users
- RSCOM17-26 rev.3 (Final): Standardisation Request to CEPT to study the extension of the Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) safety-related band at 5.9 GHz
- Standardisation mandate M/453 addressed to CEN, CENELEC and ETSI in the field of information and communication technologies to support the interoperability of co-operative systems for intelligent transport in the European community.
- Mandate 533 EN - Commission Implementing Decision of 12/03/2015 on a standardisation request addressed to the European standardisation organisations, in accordance with Regulation (EU) No 1025/2012 of the European Parliament and of the Council, to draft European standards for alternative fuels infrastructure.
(B.) Requested actions
Cooperative, Connected and Automated Mobility (CCAM)
ITS to support the development of cooperative, connected and automated mobility. ITS services in general, and C-ITS (cooperative ITS) services in particular, along with the introduction of driving automation functionalities in vehicles are generally seen as converging paths: vehicles being connected to the mobility ecosystem in their immediate vicinity (other vehicles, infrastructure) and to the wider mobility ecosystem (central traffic management systems, other modes of transport, etc.), and to the internet.
As stated in the GEAR 2030 report, vehicle-to-everything (V2X) connectivity should act as an additional enabler for the operation of highly and fully automated vehicles that will hit EU roads by 2030. Connectivity and cooperation can add collective intelligence and action to automation, thus improving the overall efficiency of transport flows, including in an intermodal perspective. For some functionalities and operations, it will even be essential.
Action 1 To complete the minimum set of standards required for the interoperable deployment of CCAM services based on V2X communication, connecting all road users and infrastructure, including vulnerable road users (VRU), and ensuring the overarching principles set out in the ITS Directive, in particular by: - achieving the Release 2 for C-ITS; - updating the release one of the C-ITS standards taking into account the feedback from pilots and early deployments.
Action 2 Plugtest activities for conformity and interoperability testing, including guidelines with methods for assessing the conformity of the identified minimum set of standards.
Action 3 SDOs are invited to develop and perform an in-depth scrutiny of CCAM services from the standardisation standpoint, taking into account existing architectures, current standards and technical specifications. The analysis should identify missing complementary standards and identify possibly conflicting standards with the overarching objective of delivering full application and service interoperability. The analysis should be based on currently implemented technologies (for instance, those recognised by some Member States within the C-Roads platform, and subject to automotive deployment in line with COM (2016) 766) while also considering newly emerging technologies (in line with the 5G Action Plan) and build upon the principles and results of the RSCOM Mandate to CEPT (RSCOM17-26 rev.3) with the aim at achieving interoperability between various services.
Action 4 To support the implementation of a uniform pan-European usable trust policy and processes to support multi-stakeholder business cases, SDOs should address the following misbehaviour detection and revocation of trust for C-ITS stations including requirements definition, standardisation of the data transmitted to the misbehaviour detection decision nodes and format of the certificate revocation list (CRL).
In particular SDOs should address the following areas: 1) misbehaviour detection and revocation of trust for C-ITS stations including requirements definition, standardisation of the data transmitted to the misbehaviour detection decision nodes, format of the certificate revocation list (CRL). 2) Standards for protocols and profiles for enrolment credential requests or authorisation ticket requests are also a priority starting from the recently updated definitions of these protocols in the ETSI TS 102 941; EN.ISO TS 21177; EN.ISO TS 21184; EN.ISO TS 21185; EN.ISO TR 21186.
Action 5 To continue international cooperation in the field of ITS-CCAM standardisation, in particular with the USA and Japan, but also with other regions, including participation of the relevant SDOs.
OPEN IN-VEHICLE PLATFORM ARCHITECTURE AND HMI
The development, operation and user acceptance of vehicle-based intelligent transport systems and services will benefit from an agreed open in-vehicle platform architecture enabling a ‘single platform —multiple services’ approach and ensuring interoperability/interconnection with legacy in-vehicle communication networks (e.g. CAN-bus) and (generic) infrastructure systems and facilities.
The issue so far has been addressed in a fragmented way, providing building blocks (e.g. the research projects CVIS, GST, OVERSEE, the eSafety working group on SOA and the recommendations of the EeIP Task Force OPEN, and the ITS study) but an overall logical and cost-effective synthesis seems to be lacking. C-ITS standards should also be taken into account. A study launched under the ITS Action plan (action 4.1) focused on synergies among legal provisions and obligations for heavy goods vehicles (HGV).
Currently, significant efforts are to be made on the messages and information within different platforms and how it will be displayed in the vehicle.
Working group 6 (“Access to in-vehicle data and resources”) of the C-ITS Platform identified 3 possible technical solutions (on-board application platform, in-vehicle interface, data server platform) for accessing and sharing in-vehicle data. The following related standardisation needs have been identified:
Action 6 SDOs to continue developing standards for an advanced physical/electrical/logical interface (e.g. evolution of OBD2), including the necessary minimum level of security (i.e. integrity, authentication and availability) and the minimum data sets and standardised data protocols which enable ITS services, taking also into account, if appropriate, the existing ISO standard for access to in-vehicle data under the concept of Extended Vehicle (ISO 20077-1:2016). This would include aspects on information via HMI or any other device regarding traffic related safety information.
Action 6.1 Provisioning of messaging structures and content complementary to the DATEX II standard (CEN 16157 series) to provide information about energy related infrastructure together with dynamic information on its availability (for example of electric charging station slots) is essential for vehicle drivers to determine their optimal routes and stops. This work will also take into account new forms of vehicles
ELECTRIC VEHICLES (EVS)
Following the development of the electric vehicle market, new elements must be included in the deployment of the e-mobility infrastructure to facilitate the market uptake of EVs. The infrastructure must be fully integrated into the electricity system, allowing for smart charging and V2G services within a smart electricity system. New actors such as e-mobility service providers (EMSPs) are entering the market. Such service providers need fair market access, which in turn requires interoperability also in terms of charging infrastructure, e.g. when it comes to payments.
Action 7 ESOs to consider the development of the needed standards to support AFI Directive
- To support of the revision of the AFI Directive, DG MOVE is in the process of launching a draft mandate which includes:
- Development and harmonization of communication protocols considering the following domains:
- EV-CPO (Charging Point Operator)
- CPO-back-end (management system)
- Grid interface (link with the energy system, i.e., distribution and transmission system operators))
- Harmonization of RFID cards for e-mobility purposes
- Development of recharging points for N-category motor vehicles (DC charging)
These standards shall comply with the following requirements:
All standards must be open. They must create a level playing field between all market actors and allow for fair competition between them, without inhibiting any risk of favouring one or more market actors. The future standards should converge current open protocols in the market (such as OCPP - Open Charge Point Protocol or OCPI - Open Charge Protocol Interface), aiming to achieve a simplification of the communication domain.
All standards must take into account and, insofar as possible and useful, build upon, standards developed at international level (e.g. ISO/IEC), taking account of market support (use and acceptance by market parties) and maturity (can be implemented quickly while requiring only limited changes to existing systems).
All communication standards must include a specific part related to cybersecurity, ensuring the adequately level of security for e-mobility IT infrastructure.
Action 8 SDOs to consider the development of standards on data collection of recharging/refuelling points for alternative fuels, taking into account the results of the PSA IDACS.
The Programme Support Action (PSA) for Alternative Fuels Infrastructure (AFI) in the framework of the Connecting Europe Facility (CEF) so-called IDACS (Data collection related to recharging/refuelling points for alternative fuels and the unique identification codes related to e-Mobility actors) has two main objectives:
- Develop an approach to set up e-mobility Identification codes (thereafter the e-mobility ID codes) for Charging Point Operators and EMSPs and collect the codes already in use. During the programme it will be agreed an approach to implement “a common ID registration repository” for exchanging information on these e-mobility ID codes across the Member States and for cross-referencing the assignment of new unique ID codes.
- Ensure that data (static and dynamic) of infrastructure for electricity and hydrogen are made available through the National Access Points, which are defined in the Directive 2010/40/EU on Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS Directive) and the Commission Delegated Regulations in the format specified therein. Optionally, gather missing data for compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefied natural gas (LNG), liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and high blended bio fuels and ensure that all data are made available through the National Access Points, which are defined in the Directive 2010/40/EU on Intelligent Transport Systems and the Commission Delegated Regulations in the format specified therein.
This PSA is being implemented by 15 Member States and has already agreed a format to set up e-mobility ID codes for CPOs and EMSPs. In this regard, the SDOs should work in the adoption of the format agreed in a standard. Discussion has been established on this aspect in the WP related to ISO 15118. The correct alingment must be ensured.
It is important to remark that the associated standardisation activity is fundamental in order to give certainty and support a structured market development of an EU-wide approach for the assignments of ID codes to e-mobility actors of alternative fuels and better information about the location/availability of the infrastructure. This will also contribute to digital maps and location features.
DIGITAL MAPS & LOCATION FEATURES:
It may be relevant to many services and applications to make use of a high precision location reference beyond current global navigation satellite systems aiming at enabling more effective and advanced services. To achieve this, all functional and technical methods need to be used (e.g. crowd sourcing, high precision objects and radio communications).
Action 9 SDOs to standardise data and communication aspects to ensure interoperable implementation and data sharing system for increased location accuracy.
Action 10 SDOs to develop standards / specifications to steer and manage the exchange of accurate (public) road data in navigation-oriented maps, and of the timely integration of such updates in ITS digital maps for navigation and more advanced in-vehicle applications, including ITS applications for CCAM services and automated driving support, and for non-vehicle ITS applications. As far as possible, it will be significant to address the largest alignment with the technical framework for infrastructure for spatial information in the European community (INSPIRE).
Digital local dynamic maps
Action 11 SDOs to extend the local dynamic map standards to integrate mechanisms supporting the use of high precision positioning and related objects, in particular for some relevant safety related applications. This may require additional specific object definition standardisation.
(URBAN) ITS - MULTIMODAL SERVICES
Standardisation request on urban ITS M/546 (Commission Implementing Decision of 12/2/2016)
A pre-study on Urban ITS was carried out by CEN/TC 278 to identify further standardisation needs. The report can be downloaded from: https://www.cen.eu/news/brochures/brochures/Urban_Intelligent_Transport_CEN-TC-278.pdf . It identified several actions, which were used as input to the EC Standardisation request M546:
Action 12 As possible further activities in relation to standardisation work on Urban ITS, the Commission will also discuss the following aspects with the ESOs and stakeholders:
The requested European standards and European standard deliverables should reuse, harmonise or interface as far as possible with existing standards, specifications (incl. priority actions A and B within the ITS Directive) and projects (CIVITAS, POSSE and smart cities projects etc.). In the domain of public transport, and particularly with respect to multimodal information and smart ticketing, the need for consistency will affect a broad set of standards and technical specifications, namely:
- Transmodel the European Public Transport Reference Data Model (EN 12896);
- SIRI (System Interface for Real-time Information EN 15531 1-4 & CEN TS 15531-5), largely based on Transmodel: defines standard exchanges of real- time public transport information and being extended to include new mobility services (sharing, pooling, rental and taxis);
- NeTEx (Network and Timetable Exchange, CEN TS 16614 1-3), based on Transmodel parts 1,2,3 and 5: defines a physical data model and standard exchanges of planned public transport information and being extended to include new mobility services (sharing, pooling, rental and taxis)
- Standards supporting the emerging interoperable fare management (IFM) systems: Public Transport interoperability (IOPTA) standard ISO EN 15320, currently under revision, defining the functional system architecture and the application scenarios; the EN 1545 standard describing the data elements and the ISO EN 24014-1 standard, currently under revision, defining functional system architecture and the application scenarios.
- OpRa (Operating Raw data and statistics exchange): supports the identification of Public Transport raw data to be exchanged, gathered and stored in order to support the study and control phase of Public Transport Service and to enable Quality of Service evaluation. The work is compliant with Transmodel.
Necessary actions, in particular to fully satisfy the requirements of the Delegated Regulation EU 2017/1926 (priority action A): Public Transport:
Action 12 a continue defining data exchange formats and publication services related to OpRa in compliance with Transmodel and NeTEx.
Action 12 b continue developing NeTEx and SIRI European minimum profiles in order to support the requirements of the priority action A.
Action 12c continue developing data models for alternative fuels infrastructure, including the emerging needs concerning the communication of recharging stations with the grid. Concretely, new data models should cover the exchange of information regarding price, demand response, load control, metering and capacity forecast the work shall be in coherence with existing standards, Transmodel/ NeTEx/SIRI/DATEX. Link Road Transport / Public transport
Action 12 d to complete the infrastructure data model/data exchange format for the entire cycle network (i.e. entire cycling network and of roads in which cycles are allowed together with other vehicles or are forbidden) together with detailed cycle network attributes (e.g. surface quality, side-by-side cycling, etc) and the entire pedestrian network with accessibility features. The work shall take into account the existing results of INSPIRE. It shall also consider the achievements of the GDF standard and possibility of Open Street Map and shall be linked to Transmodel/NeTEx (in particular to trip/route representation).
Action 12 e to develop clear interoperability between key data modelling concepts for the parking domain, bringing alignment between existing standards (Transmodel/NeTEx and DATEX II)
Action 12 f to develop the data model/data exchange format of the overall typology of Points of Interest to support the requirements of priority Action A.
Action 12 g to develop clear interoperability between Transmodel/NeTEx service network and the INSPIRE infrastructure network in order to respond properly to the provisions of priority Action A.
Action 13 SDOs, to consider, in cooperation with the Commission and relevant stakeholders, possible further actions addressing the following aspects:
- To Develop a glossary of terms with their definitions in the context of ITS, based as far as possible on the Public Transport Reference Data Model (Transmodel)
- To provide standardized means to define the content and applicability of traffic regulations and to provide standardized means to exchange Traffic Regulations robustly and securely between interested parties (METR). It is also necessary to provide mechanisms to support verification of content for Electronic Traffic Regulations.
- To provide standards to manage operations and enforcement in controlled traffic zones.
- To consider standards to manage services that impact or part of urban transport, e.g. management of road gritters, road maintenance operations, buses, waste collection, social service visits, etc. ITS technologies can be used to assist administrations to manage such services.
- With respect to Mobility platforms, including Mobility as a Service (MaaS), SDOs to provide a “categorising” TR and further deliverables related to the specification of “fulfilment requests/responses” between users and services providers.
- To deliver interface specifications for roadside sensors to roadside controllers.
- To integrate app based new mobility services and vulnerable road users into the overall traffic planning by providing Standardised APIs for smartphone data collection and distribution.
Action 14 SDOs to develop standards supporting the emerging IFM, taking into account the findings from the smart ticketing alliance. This should include the development of:
- technical specifications and test procedures for the quality assurance of the interoperable fare medium;
- technical specifications and standards for profiles of information exchange between the operational entities in IFM; and
- a technical report for a security architecture framework.
DATA EXCHANGE AND REUSE
Action 15 Further development of the DATEX II standard taking into account input from road operators. A current Programme Support Action (PSA) for Intelligent Transport Services for Road (ITS) in the framework of the Connecting Europe Facility (CEF) is focusing on the maintenance and further development of DATEX II for the provision of interoperable intelligent transport systems and services for road transport, in compliance with European specifications developed under the ITS Directive.
Action 16 European standardisation deliverables on reference data models, common data dictionaries and metadata structure across the three domains and specific European standards:
- Multimodal information services: new mobility services, alternative fuels infrastructure;
- Traffic management: static/dynamic road data, traffic and traffic control data, weather data and traffic prioritisation and access regulations; and
- Urban logistics: intelligent parking for light vehicles/commercial vehicles/trucks and loading bays information and reservation services for special freight vehicles and logistic sectors
Action 17 take action to improve harmonization between existing standards, most notably TN-ITS (CEN/TS 17268) and DATEX II (CEN 16157 series), especially in relation to the carrying of information concerning road traffic regulations, taking into account European activities in this field (e.g. TN-ITS GO and Datex PSAs) and European specifications developed under the ITS Directive.
Action 18 Another issue is related to on board weighing systems for trucks, where different providers may equip the tractor and the trailers that it will tow. ESOs should develop an interface standard between the different suppliers to ensure that the on board weighing computer in the tractor will be able to receive the weights per axle of any trailer, store them, secure them, and then calculate the total weight of the vehicle. This standard could be based on cooperative intelligent transport systems (C-ITS).
Action 19 SDOs to consider standardisation activities in support of EU-wide data privacy policies (e.g. GDPR) in the area of ITS-CCAM, in compliance with European regulation and recommendations.
SECURITY in the context of C-ITS
Action 20 SDOs to investigate security aspects of cooperative, connected and Automated Mobility (CCAM) and intelligent transportation systems. SDOs are invited to analyse the evolution of C-ITS ‘Day1’ standards from a security angle to support automated vehicles design and deployment. In particular, SDOs are invited to expand standards based on the already defined C-ITS security mechanisms to achieve appropriate levels of authenticity and integrity of messages being exchanged between fixed and mobile C-ITS stations for higher levels of automation use cases. Standards shall provide suitable mechanisms to support C-ITS services going beyond information services, building upon the C-ITS certificate & security policy published on the European C-ITS Point of Contact for the implementation of the EU C-ITS security credential management system according to COM (2016) 766 and COM(2018)283.
In addition, to perform a mapping and the respective gap analysis in the context and the respective work of the foreseen ISA/SAE 21434 standard and the upcoming UNECE Regulations on Cybersecurity and OTA updates. The purpose will be to identify the way-forward in concrete terms and in regards with the elements missing for a comprehensive coverage of Cybersecurity issues in the CCAM ecosystem. In the scope of this action should be included relevant policy-driven initiatives like the new ENISA study on the security of Smart Cars and V2X communications.
(C.) Activities and additional information
(C.1) Related standardisation activities
CEN, ISO, ETSI
Release 1 has been finalised — see ETSI TC ITS technical report TR 101 067 with the Release 1 standards and the development of ISO TR 17465-3 with the CEN/ISO Release 1 list. A joint document listing Release 1 standards also includes relevant standards from other SDOs such as SAE and IEEE. Development of Release 2 is well advanced with all of the key documents in revision.
The progress of 3GPP and LTE V2X is also relevant, noting the impending completion of Release 14, given that this access technology may also serve C-ITS purposes. The co-existence of technologies from 3GPP with those from ITS is being actively addressed in collaboration between ETSI and 3GPP SA6 in the context of the ETSI TVRA revision and updates in all of the ETSI TC ITS WG5 security documents.
ISO TC22 & ISO TC204 (CEN/TC278 WG16 & TC 301), SAE: In-vehicle Platform.
HLC & JWG between TC204 and TC22 discussing how to continue activities.
SAE looks at electrical connections related activities.
ETSI, CEN, ISO, SAE, IEEE Evaluation of the application of existing standards is an ongoing activity.
Harmonisation task groups (HTGs) are looking into harmonisation needs between the standards developed by the different organisations.
CEN and ETSI are working, in consultation with main stakeholders (such as ASECAP and C2C CC), to find an appropriate solution to ensure non-detrimental interference from ITS-G5 systems using CEN DSRC technology at 5.8 GHz.
See also CEN/TR 16690 on Electronic fee collection — Guidelines for EFC applications based on in-vehicle ITS stations
CEN/TC 278 develop standards in the field of telematics to be applied to road traffic and transport, including those elements that need technical harmonization for intermodal operation in the case of other means of transport. It shall support: vehicle, container, swap body and goods wagon identification; communication between vehicles and road infrastructure; communication between vehicles; vehicle man machine interfacing as far as telematics is concerned; traffic and parking management; user fee collection; public transport management; user information.
CEN/TC 278 WG17 has been created specifically to address standardisation requirements for Urban ITS, initially focussing on the priority areas identified in M/546 but not limited only to these aspects. WG17 is not only a standards development group, but provides a cross cutting workspace to liaise with other SDOs.
SC 37 is responsible for the standardisation of generic biometric technologies pertaining to human beings to support interoperability and data interchange among applications and systems. Generic human biometric standards include: common file frameworks, biometric application programming interfaces, biometric data interchange formats, related biometric profiles and other standards in support of technical implementation of biometric systems, evaluation criteria to biometric technologies, methodologies for performance testing and reporting, cross jurisdictional and societal aspects of biometric implementation. SC 37 Biometrics home page: http://www.iso.org/iso/home/standards_development/list_of_iso_technical_committees/jtc1_home/jtc1_sc37_home.htm . The complete list of standards published or under development can be found in ISO Standards Catalogue of ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 37 — Biometrics.
Published standards and ongoing projects related to the topics include the series of biometric data interchange standards for different biometric modalities, biometric technical interfaces, related biometric profiles and other standards in support of technical implementation of biometric systems, and cross jurisdictional and societal aspects of biometric implementation. Representative projects: amendments of ISO/IEC 19794-x: 2011/Amd. 2:2015 data format standards specifying XML encoding, extensible biometric data interchange formats ISO/IEC 39794-x (e.g. generic extensible data interchange formats for the representation of data: a tagged binary data format based on an extensible specification in ASN.1 and a textual data format based on an XML schema definition (both capable of holding the same information), ISO/IEC 30107-x Biometric presentation attack detection multi-part standard and ISO/IEC 24779-x — Cross-Jurisdictional and societal aspects of implementation of biometric technologies — Pictograms, Icons and Symbols for use with Biometric Systems multi-part standard.
Standards developed and in development in support of e-mobility include:
- ISO 15118 Road vehicles - Vehicle to grid communication interface
- IEC 62840 Electric vehicle battery swap system
- IEC 61851 Electrical systems for electric road vehicles and electric industrial trucks
- IEC 62196 Plugs, socket-outlets, vehicle connectors and vehicle inlets - Conductive charging of electric vehicle
- IEC 63110 Protocol for the management of EVs charging and discharging infrastructures
- IEC 63119 Information exchange for electric vehicle charging roaming service
- IEC 61850 Exchange of information with distributed energy resources
WGs/technical committees relating to the above e-mobility standards include:
- IEC TC 69 (Electrical power/energy transfer systems for electrically propelled road vehicles and industrial trucks)
- IEC TC18
- IEC TC 23 and SC 23H
ITU has various standardisation activities in the area of ITS communications.
- ITU-R WP5A is responsible for ITS studies in the Radiocommunication Sector and contributed to the World Radiocommunication Conference (WRC-19) on AI 1.12 “to consider possible global or regional harmonized frequency bands”(Resolution 237 (WRC-15)). See WRC-19 final acts: https://www.itu.int/en/ITU-R/conferences/wrc/2019/Pages/default.aspx
- Approved various Recommendations including “Harmonization of frequency bands for Intelligent Transport Systems in the mobile service” (ITU-R M.2121); “Radio interface standards of V2V and V2I communications for ITS applications” (ITU-R M.2084); “Systems characteristics of automotive radars operating in the frequency band 76-81 GHz for ITS applications”(ITU-R M.2057); “ITS - Guidelines and objectives” (ITU-R M.1890); “ITS - Dedicated short range communications at 5.8 GHz”(ITU-R M.1453); “Millimetre wave vehicular collision avoidance radars and radiocommunication systems for ITS applications” (ITU-R M.1452), and Reports including “Advanced ITS Radiocommunications” (M.2228). ITU-R also has a report on “Intelligent transport systems (ITS) usage” (Rep. ITU-R M.2445-0) and on “Examples of arrangements for ITS deployments under the mobile service” (ITU-R M.2444).
- A new Question 261/5 on “Radiocommunication requirements for connected automated vehicles (CAV)” was approved.
ITU-T SG16 approved Recommendations ITU-T F.749.2 “Service requirements for vehicle gateway platforms”, ITU-T H.550 “Architecture and functional entities of Vehicle Gateway Platforms” ITU-T F.749.3 “Use cases and requirements for the vehicular multimedia networks” and ITU-T H.560 “Communications interface between external applications and a Vehicle Gateway Platform”. Studies have started on use cases and requirements for multimedia communication enabled vehicle systems using artificial intelligence (F.VS-AIMC), taxonomy of automated driving (F.AUTO-TAX), gap analysis of vehicle gateways (HSTP-VG-Gap) and requirements for vehicle recognition application in visual surveillance system (F.VRVS) https://www.itu.int/itu-t/workprog/wp_search.aspx?sg=16
ITU-T SG13 approved Recommendation ITU-T Y.4407/Y.2281 “Framework of networked vehicle services and applications using NGN” and is working on QoS requirements for train communication network supported by IMT-2020 (Y.IMT2020-qos-req-tcn). https://www.itu.int/itu-t/workprog/wp_search.aspx?sg=13
ITU-T SG5 is working on effects of ICT enabled autonomy on vehicles longevity and waste creation (L.AUVE). https://www.itu.int/itu-t/workprog/wp_search.aspx?sg=05
IEEE has standards activities in support of the digital transformation of transportation addressing e.g. communication, sensors, safety, and electric charging of EVs.
IEEE 802 LAN/MAN Standards Committee:
- Intra-vehicle communication: WGs 802.3/802.1 evolve Ethernet standards to support high bitrates and Time Sensitive Networking (TSN) in a vehicle.
- V2X-wireless communication: WG: 802.11 (WLAN): the physical layer for mission critical communication and ad-hoc V2X networking has been optimized in the dedicated 5.9 GHz spectrum (IEEE 802.11p). The ongoing work on the next generation of IEEE 802.11p, i.e. 802.11bd will support many more use cases. ETSI ITS G5 relies on IEEE 802.11p and will benefit from 802.11bd.
The Dedicated Short Range Communication Working Group develops the IEEE WAVE family of standards (Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments). WAVE adds a whole protocol stack on top of IEEE 802.11p/bd. In particular, IEEE 1609.2 standardises a PKI based security architecture and security functions for V2X. ETSI ITS-G5 and IEEE WAVE coordinate to harmonize security features for V2xX.
The Automotive Image Quality Working Group (in particular IEEE P2020) standardises a suite of objective and subjective test methods for measuring automotive camera image quality attributes, and tools and test methods to facilitate decision making among OEM and Tier 1 system integrators and component vendors regarding automotive ADAS image quality.
The Lidar Working Group develops a Standard for the Performance of Lidar Used in Traffic Speed Measurements (P2452) and a Standard for Test Methods of Automotive Lidar Performance (P2936)
A WG of the ITS Standards Committee develops a standard for a Formal Model for Safety Considerations in Automated Vehicle Decision Making (in particular P2846). The WG ‘Exchange/Interoperability format for functional safety analysis and safety verification of IP, SoC and mixed signal ICs’ (in particular P2851) defines a data format with which results of safety analyses (such as FMEA, FMEDA, FMECA, FTA) and related safety verification activities - such as fault injection - executed for IPs, SoCs and mixed signal ICs can be exchanged and made available to system integrators. The goal of the standard is to provide a common ground for EDA, SoC and IP vendors in needs of developing tools, SoC and IP for safety critical applications.
The Distributed Ledger Technology in Connected and Autonomous Vehicles WG (in particular P2418.4) provides a common framework for distributed ledger technology (DLT) usage, implementation, and interaction in connected and autonomous vehicles (CAVs).
The Software & Systems Engineering Standards Committee (C/S2ESC) has several WGs to develop a family of standards (P70xx series) for ethical considerations in a broad range of artificial intelligence/autonomous system uses, including vehicular contexts.
The ‘Smart Grid Powerline Communication’ WG develops IEEE 1901 to provide broadband over powerline communications to be used e.g. when charging electric vehicles (EVs). The Working Group ‘Creating technical specifications of quick charger for electric Vehicles’ develops IEEE 2030.1.1 for a DC quick and bi-directional Charger for Use with Electric Vehicles.
For a list of these and other IEEE standardisation activities on transportation, please visit: https://ieeesa.io/rp-its
The Emergency Context Resolution with Internet Technologies (ECRIT) Working Group has developed a general architecture for enabling IP applications to discover and connect to emergency services.
The [https://datatracker.ietf.org/wg/geopriv/about/ Geographic Location/Privacy? (GEOPRIV) Working Group) has developed protocols that allow IP networks to inform end devices about their geolocation, a critical pre-requisite for emergency calling.
The application-specific working groups in the IETF (for example, the [https://datatracker.ietf.org/wg/sipcore/about/ Session Initiation Protocol Core (SIPCORE) Working Group) have developed extensions to support emergency calling as required.
The IP Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments (ipwave) WG works on Vehicle-2-Vehicle (V2V) and Vehicle-2-Internet (V2I) use-cases where IP is well-suited as a networking technology and will develop an IPv6 based solution to establish direct and secure connectivity between a vehicle and other vehicles or stationary systems. These vehicular networks are characterized by dynamically changing network topologies and connectivity.
V2V and V2I communications may involve various kinds of link layers: 802.11-OCB (Outside the Context of a Basic Service Set), 802.15.4 with 6lowpan, 802.11ad, VLC (Visible Light Communications), IrDA, LTE-D, LP-WAN. One of the most used link layers for vehicular networks is IEEE 802.11-OCB, as a basis for Dedicated short-range communications (DSRC). Several of these link-layers already provide support for IPv6. However, IPv6 on 802.11-OCB is yet to be fully defined. Some aspects of the IPv6 over 802.11-OCB work have been already defined at IEEE 1609 and the specification produced by this working group is expected be compatible with these aspects.
This group’s primary deliverable (and the only Standards track item) will be a document that will specify the mechanisms for transmission of IPv6 datagrams over IEEE 802.11-OCB mode.
OASIS hosts the Open Mobility Foundation (OMF) OASIS Open Project, an open source project launched by a coalition of cities and mobility and software vendors to provide an end-to-end set of standardized data specifications and open source software for managing traffic, availability and route planning for micromobility devices (such as dockless e-scooters). Various standards and code modules for vehicle ID, monitoring, traffic, parking control, consumer/passenger privacy, and policy issues are under development.
A distinguishing feature of oneM2M is its Basic Ontology specification, which enables semantic and syntactic interoperability across the IoT. This will become increasingly important as greater quantities of data are generated and shared across the IoT.
oneM2M has been designed for interworking: so it naturally lends itself to be used as a factory hub aggregating modern equipment (e.g. OPC-UA based), legacy controllers and the plethora of sensors that are being added to equipment to provide input for innovative applications and whose characteristics and usage do not match well with many of the controllers that are commonly used. It is used, e.g., in BaSys 4.0, the Industrie 4.0 open-source middleware that has been funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) since 2016, whose implementation is available as Eclipse Project BaSyx.
Furthermore, the interconnection capabilities that facilitate interoperability among smart cities also enable oneM2M to be used to support the operations of distributed, coupled supply chains.
These characteristics have been outlined in a recent study by ETSI (ETSI TR 103 536 - Strategic / technical approach on how to achieve interoperability/interworking of existing standardized IoT Platforms)
International cooperation for the development of harmonised global standards is particularly important in these areas. The Commission has concluded agreements with the US Department of Transport and with the Japanese Ministry for Land Transport and Industry. Cross-regional harmonisation task groups (HTGs) have been established in this area.
ETSI has cooperation and liaison agreements with relevant standards organisations such as IEEE, SAE, ISO, IETF, and standardisation supporting industry groups like TISA. Additionally ETSI have liaisons and contacts with regional and national standards organisations such as ARIB (Japan), CCSA (China) and TTA (Korea) and the Asian Pacific Telecommunication organisation (APT).
ITU has launched the Collaboration on ITS Communication Standards (CITS) aims at providing a globally recognized forum for the creation of an internationally accepted, globally harmonised set of ITS communication standards of the highest quality in the most expeditious manner possible to enable the rapid deployment of fully interoperable ITS communication-related products and services in the global marketplace. See http://itu.int/en/ITU-T/extcoop/cits
ICT for traffic management and infrastructure to infrastructure (I2I) related information exchange and architectures beyond short range communications.
CEN/TC278/WG8: DATEX data exchange standards. DATEX II is a standardised e-language for traffic and travel data exchange between traffic control centres, traffic information centres and service providers. In 2020, DATEX II is expected to be the information model for road traffic and travel information in Europe. The aim is to get the real mature parts of DATEX II standardised as European standards.
Standardisation activities are taken up in this area by ISO TC 204, with strong cooperation with CEN/TC 278, but also by ISO TC 22. ISO/TS 15638-19:2013 ITS — Framework for collaborative telematics applications for regulated commercial freight vehicles (TARV Part 19). It is at an early stage of development but not mature enough to serve as standard for reservation at that stage.
IEEE has standards on charging communication: IEEE 1901 provides broadband over powerline communications to be used in charging, and IEEE 2030.1.1 on DC quick charging.
For a list of these and other IEEE standardisation activities on transportation, please see: http://standards.ieee.org/develop/msp/its.pdf
Study groups 12 and 16 both have work items to transform the deliverables of ITU-T focus group on driver distraction (2011-13) into proper ITU-T Recommendations. The mandate of ITU-T study group 17 includes the study of security aspects of ITS communications.
W3C has several ongoing activities related to automotive/ITS.
The mission of the automotive and web platform business group (http://www.w3.org/community/autowebplatform/) is to influence the open web platform on the unique needs of the automotive industry, and to help stakeholders within the automotive industry to build a good and practical understanding on the standardisation processes within the W3C. The initial scope of this business group will be to determine what vehicle data should be exposed through a web API(s).
Several community groups (pre-standardisation open fora) were also started to look at specific ITS issues, e.g. the traffic event ontology community group (https://www.w3.org/community/traffic/), and automotive ontology (https://www.w3.org/community/gao/).
Other activities related to standardisation
C-ITS Platform (2014-2017)
Commission expert group (E03188) brought together representatives of all C-ITS stakeholders to cooperate on legal, organisational, administrative and governing aspects, but also on more technical issues such as standardisation, or security and certification of the system, in view to ensure the interoperability of systems across the Member States.
CCAM Platform (2019-now)
Commission expert group (E03657) to provide advice and support to the Commission in the field of testing and pre-deployment activities for Cooperative, Connected, Automated and Autonomous Mobility (CCAM).
Car-2-Car Communication Consortium (C2C-CC)
The industry organisation represents car manufacturers and actively participates and chairs ETSI TC ITS. It also contributes to CEN working groups.
The C-Roads Platform is a joint initiative of 16 European Member States, 7 associated states and road operators for testing and implementing C-ITS services in light of cross-border harmonisation and interoperability https://www.c-roads.eu/platform.html
5G Automotive Association (5GAA)
Association to connect the telecom industry and vehicle manufacturers to develop end-to-end solutions for future mobility and transportation services http://www.5gaa.org.org
ERTICO — ITS Europe, GSM-A
Stakeholder organisations providing input to ETSI and CEN
“Amsterdam Group” (AG)
This is an umbrella organisation bringing together the C2C-CC, ASECAP, CEDR and POLIS for smooth alignment of deployment of Cooperative-ITS functionalities and technologies European wide. A strong support for standardisation activities, regulation and harmonisation is provided to the European community directly by the individual AG members as agreed within the AG.
The UNECE transport division provides secretariat services to the intergovernmental body World Forum for Harmonization of Vehicle Regulations (WP.29). The World Forum has set one of its priorities related to the establishment of a global applicable regulatory framework for automated/autonomous and connected vehicles. http://www.unece.org/WP29.html
GENIVI® is a non-profit industry alliance committed to driving the broad adoption of specified, open source, in-vehicle infotainment (IVI) software.
The alliance develops an open standard for aligning automotive and consumer infotainment cycles. http://www.genivi.org/
The MirrorLink initiative turns the car into a terminal; it has little computing power itself and relies instead on the phone as its processor. http://www.mirrorlink.com/
EU and national funded RTD projects and pilots
The standardisation activities are supported by RTD projects, pilots and field operational tests in the area of CAM, in particular contributing to fine-tuning the standards, among others, DriveC2X, FOTSIS, PRESERVE, ITSSv6, ComeSafety2, COMPASS4D, iMobilitySupport, SIM-TD, SCORE@F, eCoMove, EasyWay, SPITS
The WCO datamodel (world customs organisation data model) is an important standard for providing alignment for announcements to and from government about transport and trade. It makes communication throughout Europe between governmental parties and between government and commercial parties easier and cheaper.
EU funded RTD projects and pilots
Projects such as Mobinet, Mobincity, eCo-FEV; E-DASH, eDAS, SmartV2G, ODIN, COSIVU, SafeAdapt, Smart-LIC, VRUITS and the pilots ICT4EVEU, MOBI.Europe, MOLECULES, SmartCEM, CODECS, ENSEMBLE and green e-motion and the support action smart EV-VC will have outcomes possibly relevant for standardisation. Pilots from both IoT Large Scale Pilots and 5G Corridors initiatives also have potential to provide outcomes relevant to CAM/ITS standardisation.
TN-ITS (Transport Network ITS Spatial Data Deployment Platform)
Based on the outcome of ROSATTE project (FP7), the TN-ITS association promotes the integration of accurate (public) road data in navigation-oriented maps, and their timely updating, including possible alignment with the technical framework for the INSPIRE project, including the identification of standardisation needs. https://tn-its.eu/
A CEF-funded project (TN-ITS GO) started in 2018 to implement the exchange of data between 15 Member States and digital map providers. https://tn-its.eu/tn-its-go
EU funded projects (Horizon 2020 WG 3.5 call)
Projects supporting local dynamic maps standardisation (e.g. HIGHTS)
Smart Ticketing Alliance
The Smart Ticketing Alliance (STA) represents a platform for cooperation and a coordinated approach for establishing ticketing interoperability for the Public Transport sector. www.smart-ticketing.org
The ITxPT (Information Technology for Public Transport) Initiative aims to further cooperate on the implementation of standards for plug-and-play IT-systems applied to public transport. An integrated testbench offers services to specify, test, qualify and showcase IT solutions. www.itxpt.org