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LIFO Analytical Model

The LIFO analytical model, described in the "LIFO 2020 Guidelines and recommendations" document, is based on a hierarchy of indicators and indexes, as represented in the figure below.

Hierarchy of indicators and indexes
Hierarchy of indicators and indexes

(Action) Indicators: A number of actions have been selected in the EULF Blueprint as being representative of the scope of the recommendations to which they belong. An indicator has been designed to measure how monitored countries are progressing towards the “vision” outlined in the EULF Blueprint for each of these actions. 

The LIFO model is composed of primary indicators, based on information provided by respondents to a questionnaire, and secondary indicators, re-using information from existing sources, for example, the INSPIRE monitoring.

Each primary indicator is represented by a code Qx.y.z where x is the recommendation number, y the progressive indicator number for that recommendation and z (where applicable) a second-level indicator providing additional information on the corresponding Qx.y first level indicator. Primary indicators include all the data collected during the data gathering process which is carried out using the EUSurvey tool. 

Each secondary indicator is represented by a code Sx.y. These are computed re-using information from existing sources, for example, the INSPIRE monitoring. The use of secondary sources aims to complement the information provided through primary indicators and optimise the effort of stakeholders participating in the LIFO process by reusing relevant already available information.

Each indicator is calculated on a specific scale, which best reflects the nature of the action (e.g. if it can be measured over a continuous or a discrete scale, if it is a binary phenomenon, i.e. yes/no or similar, etc.). Indicators are then normalised over a scale of 0-1, as follows:

Score attributed to the answer / maximum applicable value, where the maximum applicable value is the upper end of the scale that the non-normalised value of the indicator can reach.

Note: Optional questions in the LIFO survey capture supplementary information relevant to corresponding mandatory questions about the actions. The mandatory questions (i.e. those marked ‘*’ in the survey) are scored, whereas the optional questions are not scored.

(Multi-level) indexes: indexes aggregate the action indicators at the levels of recommendations, focus areas, and LIFO overall to represent each country's performance at the respective levels. The relationships between (action) indicators, recommendation indexes, focus area indexes and the overall LIFO index are described in the table below.

                                               Relationships between indicators and indexes



Scoring method



Average of the 5 Focus area indexes

Focus area


Average of scores for all recommendations associated with a focus area



Average of normalised scores for all indicators associated with a recommendation[1]



Scores calculated using different scoring methods, converted to standard normalised scores in range 0-1.

In the event of a failure to respond or an "I don't know" answer, the indicator in question scores zero and it is excluded from the computation of the average score for the above levels.

Action indicators, Recommendation indexes and Focus Area indexes are thus equally weighted in the calculation of their respective upper-level indexes.

Note: Some questions have a “don’t know” response as an option. Respondents are encouraged to provide answers wherever possible. Where a “don’t know” response is given, the question has a null score. This is shown as zero in the indicator charts and the question is ignored in calculating the index scores.

To access the list of indicators used respectively in the 2019 and 2020 LIFO data collections or the detailed analytical model, please click on the buttons below.